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Parts and Wholes

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The pedagogical approach of Concrete Representation of Abstract is adopted to provide students with a practical and easy understanding of ‘Parts and Wholes’.

Learning Outcomes:

Students are able to

  • Identify whole numbers and parts of a number.
  • Understand fraction in terms of division.
  • Generate equivalent fractions to a given fraction.
  • Solve problems related to fractional numbers.


Fractions are universally considered to be a concept that is not easy to be grasped by young students. It is for this very reason that we used the pedagogical approach of CRA–Concrete Representation of Abstract to teach the students about fractions. This approach helps make abstract concepts understandable through the use of concrete materials.

Teaching Learning through Videos:

I started this lesson by playing videos that describe the basic features of fractions. The videos helped the student to understand the concept of whole numbers and parts of a number with ease.

Concrete Work:

Strategy - Paper-folding activities to show different parts of a fraction.

I distributed a few rough sheets of paper to each student and asked them to fold it and colour it as they liked. After this, I asked a student to draw a shape on the blackboard and divide the shape equally. I also asked the student to derive a fractional number by shading a few areas. I called each student, one by one, and asked them to divide the same shape in different ways and convert it to fractions.

Representation - Pictorial work:

Objective: To enable students to understand fractions as a part of whole and also help them recognize the equivalent fractions for the given fraction, I planned an activity for the same. I distributed some images of coloured parts of a fraction with a serial number written on the reverse side.


  1. The students were made to come one after the other in the order of the serial numbers that were printed on the reverse side of the images of fractions that were distributed.
  2. The students were then asked to draw and write on the blackboard the fractional representation of the image they had received. Some students struggled to write the fractional part, and support was provided to them.
  3. Finally, the students were able to equate the fractions as 1/2 = 2/4 = 4/8.

In my following class, I distributed strips of paper to each student (one each) and asked them to divide and colour the strip with any fraction of their choice.

Student 1 1/3

Student 2 2/6

Student3 4/12

After they were done, I made the students write the fractional representation on the blackboard.

Abstract - Worksheet Work:

I asked the students to solve the problems in their DIET workbook. The students were able to complete the problems with ease, since they had already had the experience of folding paper (concrete) and work with pictorial representations before being introduced to the worksheets (abstract).

Multiplication of Whole and Fractional numbers:

Students often find it tough to do calculations of multiplication pertaining to whole and fractional numbers. So, I provided my students with some real-life scenarios and concrete examples. I brought a few grocery bills and questioned them based on them. For example, if 1 kg of onion costs Rs. 10 (1 x 10), how much will 2 and a half kg of onions cost (2½ x 10)? Students, whose parents were vegetable vendors, were able to respond quickly. But, the other students were only able to provide a vague estimate of the same. Additional examples were given so that the concepts were clear for everybody.


Using the Concrete Representation of Abstract method made teaching easier. The students were also able to understand the concepts better with the help of this method, which was apparent in their performance in the examinations.

Teacher: Lakshmi P., PST, GPS Ramanathapuram



Upper Primary Maths

Term: Term 3

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